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Hadoop Multi-Node Cluster Installation Guide

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Make sure that you have a reliable network without host isolation. Static IP assignment is preferable or at-least have extremely long DHCP lease. Additionally, all nodes (Namenode/master & Datanodes/slaves) should have a common user account with same password; in case you don’t, make such user account on all nodes. Having the same username and password on all nodes makes things a bit less complicated.
First configure all nodes for single-node cluster. You can use my script that I have posted over here.

STEP 1: Stopping Hadoop Daemons and cleaning up HDFS files

  1. On all nodes, confirm that the daemons have stopped by running jps command.;; rm -rf /tmp/hadoop-$USER

  2. On Namenode/master only, remove the datanode directory from HDFS.
    rm -rf ~/hadoop_store/hdfs/datanode

  3. On Datanodes/slaves only, remove the namenode directory from HDFS.
    rm -rf ~/hadoop_store/hdfs/namenode

STEP 2: Configuring connectivity

  1. On all nodes, add IP addresses and corresponding Hostnames for all nodes in the cluster.
    sudo nano /etc/hosts

    The /etc/hosts file should look somewhat like this after you edit it. master slave1 slave2

    Additionally you may need to remove lines like “ localhost” etc if they exist. However it’s okay keep lines like “ localhost” and others.

  2. On all nodes, configure the firewall

    Allow default or custom ports that you plan to use for various Hadoop daemons through the firewall.


    Much easier, disable Firewall iptables (never on production system).

    • on RedHat like distros (Fedora, CentOS)
      sudo systemctl stop firewalld; sudo systemctl disable firewalld

    • on Debian like distros (Ubuntu)
      sudo ufw disable

  3. On Namenode/master only, gain ssh access from Namenode (master) to all Datnodes (slaves).

    ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/ $USER@slave1

    Then confirm connectivity by running ping slave1, ssh slave1.

    ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/ $USER@slave2

    Then confirm connectivity by running ping slave2, ssh slave2.

    Make sure taht you get a proper response. Remember to exit each of your ssh sessions by typing exit or closing the terminal. To be on the safer side, also made sure that all datanodes are also able to access each other.

STEP 3: Editing Configuration Files

  1. On all nodes, edit Hadoop’s core-site.xml file

    nano /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/core-site.xml

            <description>NameNode URI</description>
  2. On all nodes, edit Hadoop’s yarn-site.xml file

    nano /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/yarn-site.xml

            <description>The hostname of the RM.</description>
  3. On all nodes, edit Hadoop’s slaves file, remove the text “localhost” and add slave hostnames

    nano /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/slaves

    slave1's hostname
    slave2's hostname

    I guess having this only on Namenode/master will also work but I did this on all nodes anyway. Also note that in this configuration master behaves only as resource manger, this is how I intent it to be.

  4. On all nodes, modify hdfs-site.xml file to change the value for property dfs.replication to something > 1. It should be equal to at-least the number of slaves in the cluster; here I have two slaves so I would set it to 2.

  5. On Namenode/master only, (re)format the HDFS through namenode

    hdfs namenode -format

  6. Optional

    • remove property from master’s hdfs-site.xml file.
    • remove property from all slave’s hdfs-site.xml file.

Testing our setup (execute only on Namenode/master);

echo "hello world hello Hello" > ~/Downloads/test.txt

hadoop fs -mkdir /input
hadoop fs -put ~/Downloads/test.txt /input
hadoop jar \
  /usr/local/hadoop/share/hadoop/mapreduce/hadoop-mapreduce-examples-*.jar \
  wordcount \
  /input /output